Researchers and Philosophers have traditionally attempted to adopt different approaches to research methods whether trying to understand the mind and behaviour through the creation of theories or trying to answer practical questions. However, in this course, we are using the Qualitative approach which follows two main philosophical notions Phenomenology and Pragmatism.
It took an enormous amount of time for me to understand these notions. Firstly I realized that methods and methodologies are different. Methodology refers to philosophies that guide how the knowledge is discovered, and analyzed in a systematic way, and methods, on the other hand, is specific to gathering data through surveys, interviews etc.
Pphenomenology refers to the kinds of inquiry or study designed to explore lived experiences. Any experiences whatsoever can be phenomenological topic connected to possible human experience. For example, having a talk with someone, sending an email or a message, listening to a piece of music so forth. In all these questioning we gain the meaningful understanding, there are no ultimate determinations for the meanings of human existence. What is wonderful about phenomenological insight is that they can be surprising, deep, unexpected yet somehow recognizable., but an insight is never final, as it keeps changing in different contexts.
Pragmatism is popularly known as the theory of experimentalism, as it focuses on experiences. It is derived from Greek Word 'Pragma' which means action, it is a reasonable and logical way of doing things or thinking about problems that are based on dealing with a specific situation instead of ideas and theories. It recognizes that circumstances can be different and in that different actions may be appropriate, hence it does not demand moral uniformity between people across cultures. The pragmatists believe that reality changes due to personal experience. This is in direct contrast to realism and idealism. Another important component of Pragmatism is the application of Evolution to our education. John Dewey American Philosopher believed that evolution was not just a biological truth, but a metaphysical truth as well. He argued that experience was the fundamental component of Pragmatism, one must experience another person's philosophy in order to develop your knowledge in depth.
Looking at both the philosophies, I have understood that both Phenomenology and Pragmatism are based on experience. However, Phenomenology emphasizes on a description of the lived experiences, whereas in pragmatism researchers learn through hand on experimentation either individually or in the group.
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